Rabu, 08 September 2010

Definition of Zakat, Infaq and Sadaqah

Zakat means by language are "developing" (an namaa `) or the" purification "(at tath-hiir). As according syara ', zakat is a right that has been determined that mandatory issued on a certain wealth (haqqun muqaddarun yajibu amwalin mu'ayyanah fi) (Zallum, 1983: 147).
With the words "rights that have been determined" (haqqun muqaddarun), means the charity does not include rights-of-the amount of property is not specified, eg grants, gifts, wills, and endowments. With the words "the mandatory (issued)" (yajibu), means the charity does not include the right of the sunnah or tathawwu nature ', like shadaqah tathawwu' (alms sunnah). While the phrase "in particular wealth" (fi amwaalin mu'ayyanah) means the charity does not cover all kinds of property in general, but only certain wealth that has been determined based on the nash-nash syara 'special, such as gold, silver, camel , sheep, and so forth.

How crocheted or differences in the definition of charity was with the understanding infaq and shadaqah? Al Jurjani in his book At Ta'rifaat explained that infaq is the use of property to satisfy the needs (sharful maal ilal haajah) (Al Jurjani, tt: 39). Thus, infaq have a wider scope than the tithe. In kategorisasinya, infaq be likened to the "transport equipment", which includes trains, cars, buses, ships, etc.-is-due can be likened to the "car", as one means of transportation.

And the grants, gifts, wills, endowments, vows (to spend the treasure), a living to the family, kaffarah (a property), for violating the oath, do zhihar, killed by accident, and intimate 'in the noon-day month of Ramadan, is included infaq . Even charity itself is also one infak activities. Because it is an effort to meet the needs of both the needs of the provider or the recipient.

In other words, infaq is an activity in a consumptive use of property-ie, expenditures or expenses to meet the needs of property-not in a productive manner, ie the use of property to be developed and played out more economically (tanmiyatul Maal).

The shadaqah term, meaning the range of 3 (three), the following terms:

First, shadaqah is a gift of property to indigent people, people who need, or other parties entitled to receive shadaqah, without compensation (Mahmud Yunus, 1936: 33, Wahbah Az Zuhaili, 1996: 919). This ruling is the sunnah of Sadaqah, not mandatory. Therefore, to distinguish the obligatory zakat, the jurists use the term shadaqah tathawwu 'or an ash shadaqah nafilah (Az Zuhaili 1996: 916). As for charity, used the term al mafrudhah shadaqah ash (Az Zuhaili 1996: 751). But such descriptions Zuhaili Az (1996: 916), could become law this sunnah is haraam, if it is known that the recipient will shadaqah on the unlawful use, according to the rules syara ':

"Al wasilatu ilal haram haram"

"Every mediation to the haram, also haraam."

Could also be a mandatory law, eg to help people who are in urgent situations (mudhthar) who need help, for example in the form of food or clothing. Help them is to eliminate dharar (ADH izalah dharar) which is compulsory. If this obligation can not be accomplished unless denganshadaqah, then shadaqah become obligatory, according to the rules syara ':

"Maa laa yatimmul wajibu illallah bihi fahuwa mandatory"

"Everything that is done without an obligation not perfect, it is also something that becomes mandatory law"

In the 'urf jurists, as can be studied in the books of various schools of fiqh, if called shadaqah absolute terms, it is meant in the sense that the first shadaqah this-which is Sunnah, not charity.

Second, shadaqah is identical to the zakat (Zallum, 1983: 148). This is the second meaning of shadaqah, because in nash-nash syara 'there are al "shadaqah" which means charity. For example the word of Allah SWT:

"Indeed it is zakat-alms for the needy people, poor people,-Amil Zakat ..." (Surat At Taubah: 60)

In the verse, "zakat-alms" expressed by al "shadaqaat ash." Similarly, because the Prophet SAW to Mu'adz bin Jabal RA when he was sent Prophet to Yemen:

"... Let them (People of the Book who had converted to Islam), that God has for them requires charity, drawn from the rich among them, and given to the poor among them ..." (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim).

In the above hadith, the word "zakat" is disclosed with the word "shadaqah".

Nash-nash Based on this and that semisalnya, shadaqah is another word for charity. However, the use of the word zakat shadaqah in the sense this is not absolute. That is, to interpret shadaqah as zakat, is required qarinah (indication) which indicates that the word shadaqah-in the context of certain verses or hadith, which means it is berhukum obligatory alms, not shadaqah tathawwu 'which berhukum sunnah. In the 60th paragraph letter Taubah At the top, al "ash shadaqaat" is defined as zakat (an obligatory), because at the end of the paragraph there is the phrase "faridhatan minallah" (as required by an ordinance of God). This expression is qarinah, which shows that what is meant by al "shadaqaat ash" in the last paragraph, is an obligatory charity, not shadaqah others.

Similarly on Mu'adz hadith, the words "shadaqah" interpreted as charity, because in the beginning there was al hadith "iftaradha" (requires / memfardhukan). This is qarinah that is meant by "shadaqah" in the hadith, it is charity, not the other.

Thus, the word "shadaqah" can not be interpreted as "zakat", unless there qarinah the show.

Third, it is something that ma'ruf shadaqah (right in view of syara '). This understanding is based on Saheeh Muslim that the Prophet said: "Kullu ma'rufin shadaqah" (Every virtue, is shadaqah).

Based on this, then act to prevent themselves from sinners are shadaqah, make a living for the family is shadaqah, beramar ma'ruf nahi munkar is shadaqah, lust to spill shadaqah wife is, and smiled to his fellow Muslims are also shadaqah too.

Presumably shadaqah very broad sense this is what is meant by Al Jurjani when he was in his book At shadaqah define Ta'rifaat. According to him, shadaqah is any provision by which we are expecting reward from Allah (Al Jurjani, tt: 132). Giving (al 'athiyah) here can be interpreted widely, both in the form of gift giving in the form of property as well as an attitude or good deeds.

If so, then pay the zakat and bershadaqah (property) can also be included in the above sense. Of course, such a meaning it can cause confusion with the meaning shadaqah first or second, because its meaning is very broad. Therefore, when Imam An Nawawi in his book Sahih Muslim bi mensyarah Syarhi An Nawawi hadith above ("Kullu ma'rufin shadaqah") he suggests that shadaqah majazi here has a meaning (figurative / metaphorical), not the intrinsic meaning (the meaning of origin / actual). According to him, all good deeds are counted as shadaqah, because it is equated with shadaqah (of property) in terms of reward (min haitsu tsawab). For instance, prevent ourselves from sinning called shadaqah, because these acts as those shadaqah rewarding. Amar nahi munkar ma'ruf called shadaqah, because these activities as well as rewarding shadaqah. So forth (An Nawawi, 1981: 91).

As a result, as well as a second shadaqah meaning, the meaning of this third shadaqah also are not absolute. That is, if in a verse or hadith have the word "shadaqah", does not automatically mean he ma'ruf everything, except if there is qarinah the show. Because it has become a common thing and famous in the science of usul fiqh, that an al initially be interpreted according to its intrinsic meaning. It is not meant to be transferred majazi meaning, unless there is qarinah. As revealed by Nabhani and other scholars, there is a rule of usul mentions:

"Al Ashlu fil kalaam al haqiqah."

"On the origin of a word must be intrinsically dirtikan (original meaning)." (Usman, 1996: 181, Nabhani, 1953: 135, Az Zaibari: 151)

However, it could be al "shadaqah" in one nash can have more than one meaning, depending on the qarinah the show. So we can, "shadaqah" in one nash means well means shadaqah sunnah zakah. For example the word of God:

"Take alms from their wealth, with the charity that you cleanse and purify them ..." (At Taubah: 103)

The word "shadaqah" in the paragraph above can be interpreted "charity", because the sentence after "you cleanse and purify them" to show the meaning of the language of charity, namely "that-hiir" (purify). Can also be interpreted as "shadaqah" (the Sunnah), because sababun nuzulnya shadaqah related to property, not charity. According to Ibn Kathir (1989: 400-401) of this paragraph in connection with some people down the left from the War of Tabuk, and repent while trying menginfakkan treasure. So penginfakan their property, more meaningful as a "redeemer" sins than charity.

Therefore, Ibn Kathir argue that the word "shadaqah" in general significant paragraph above, can shadaqah mandatory (zakat) or shadaqah Sunna (Ibn Kathir, 1989: 400). As Sayyid Al Sunnah Sabiq in his book Fiqhus Juz I (1992: 277) also states, "shadaqah" in the paragraph above can be meaningful mandatory zakat, or shadaqah tathawwu '. [Muhammad al-Jawi Shiddiq]

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