Etymologically the word sacrifice comes from qurb or qurban which means close or mendekat1. Big Indonesian Dictionary, defines sacrifice as an offering to God (such as sheep, cows, camels are slaughtered on the day of Lebaran Haji) 2. In the science of jurisprudence, also called udhiah3 sacrifice (slaughter animals at the time the sun was rising in the morning) derived from the word dahwah or Duha (when the sun is rising in the morning). From the word was taken Duha dahwah or a plural word dahiyah udhiah.
Sacrifice means the slaughter of certain animals with the intention to draw closer to God's peace be upon him at the time of Eid al-Adha or the day tasyrik (December 11, 12, and 13 Dhul-Hijjah).
In the perspective of Islam, sacrifice is the Shari'a which initially brought by Prophet Ibrahim. This was foretold in the Quran as follows:
"And We ransomed him with a great slaughter" (QS.37: 107).
Then Allah commanded the Prophet to continue such Shari'a every Eid al-Adha. Implementation of the sacrifice prescribed in the second year of Hijrah, along with charity and prayers pensyariatan Idul Fitri and Idul Adha. Pensyariatan sacrificial worship is based on the word of Allah Almighty and Prophet Muhammad's hadith as follows:
"And be steadfast in prayer as your Lord and berkurbanlah" (QS.108: 2).
"And We made the camels were part of syiar God ..." (QS.22: 36).
"Anyone who has had the ability but he does not sacrifice, then he must not approach our place of prayer" (Narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Ibn Majah).
"There is no charity descendants of Adam who preferred God on the Day of Eid al-Adha sacrifice apart. Behold the beast will come on the Day of Resurrection with horns, nails, and feathers. And indeed the sacrifice of blood shed because God first before he poured into the Earth, which makes jiea be happy "(Narrated by at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim).
"Holy Prophet himself always sacrifice with two sheep on every Eid al-Adha, one for himself and one intended for his people" (Narrated by Jamaat).
Law of Sacrifice
Jurists (Jurist) has a different opinion about the law of sacrifice as follows:.
1. Imam Abu Hanifah (Hanafi school) argues that the law of sacrifice is required to be done once a year. Their opinions are based on the word of God Almighty: "And be steadfast in prayer as your Lord and berkurbanlah" (QS.108: 2), and the words of the Prophet: "He who has the ability but he does not sacrifice, then he must not approach our place of prayer" (Narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Ibn Majah). Imam Abu Hanifa and his followers understand the hadith are looking at a serious threat and orders contained in them are mandatory command. If the command is a command that the Prophet Sunnah, the Prophet will not mention the threat of such a weight on people who do not carry it out. However, the law must sacrifice to turn into the sunna (tatawwu '). Changes that occur when the perpetrator of the poor who vowed not to sacrifice animals nor bought with the intention of offering. If the poor man vowed to kill the sacrifice or animal sacrifice has bought or been bought with the intention to be a sacrificial animal, then it is obligatory for him to practice their religion sacrifice, let him keep (away from the cut) hair and nails (which will be sacrificed animal) "(HR . Jamaah except Bukhari from Umm Salamah).
2. Jumhur School scholars of Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali opinion that the law of sacrifice is the sunna mu'akkad and makruh for people who are able but do not perform sacrifices. His opinion was based on Prophet's Hadith: "When you see the new moon (the beginning of the month), Dhul-Hijjah and one of you wants to sacrifice, then he shall menehan himself from the (cut) hair and nails (animal sacrifice) her" (Narrated by al- Jamaat except al-Bukhari). According to them, slaughtering sacrifices in this tradition is associated with Iradat. So these linkages disclaims liability sacrifice. Therefore, for those who want to sacrifice can do it and its legal traditions. Conversely, for those who do not want to do is not burdened with sin. This opinion was based on Prophetic traditions:
"There are three things that must be above me and the Sunna for you: Witr prayer, sacrifice, and pray Duha" (Narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Hakim, and Daruqutni).
"I was ordered to sacrifice the dank urban sunna for you" (Narrated by at-Tirmizi).
Nevertheless, the Maliki school of law traditions regard it only applies to a person other than pilgrims, while the pilgrims sacrifice of law is mandatory sacrifice at Mina. Medium Maliki school of scholars, including Ibn al-Kilabi Jazzi (d. 741) looked at the legal origin of sacrifice is the sunna. However, such a legal origin may change becomes mandatory when a person vowed to sacrifice or states will conduct a verbal sacrifice and preceded by an intention to do so. However, the opinion of Ibn al-Kilabi Jazzi is disputed by as-Sadiq Muhammad Amin ad-Darir and Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Urfah ad-Dasuqi (d. 1230 H/1815 M), both scholars Maliki School. According to them, the legal traditions that can only be changed to mandatory if someone said it would sacrifice that accompanied the intention of sacrifice. The vow to sacrifice if not accompanied by an oral statement does not change the legal origin of sacrifice.
Medium Shafi'i school of law explains that sacrifice is the sunna for each individual once in a lifetime, because of amr (command) here do not want a repetition of (laa yaqtadii at-tikraar). However, they also looked at the sunna kifayah for every family to do it once a year on Eid al-Adha as the words of the Prophet Saww:
"O mankind, the sacrifice must be made by each family every year" (Narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, at-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah).
For Shafi'i and Hanbali school, intending to sacrifice or vow not to change the legal origin of sacrifice, the sunna mu'akkad. Changes that occur when the vows or the intention was expressed by the tongue. But when someone says: "God willing I will sacrifice", then such speech does not change the law sunahnya sacrifice.
Jurists agree on the terms for people who do sacrifice as follows:
5. Permanent residents of an area.
6. Have the ability.
Jurists differ in understanding "has the ability" as follows:
1. Hanafi school, defines "ability" is to have senisab alms outside the needs of food, clothing, and shelter their families.
2. Maliki, defines "ability" is a treasure more than the primary requirement in that year.
3. Shafi'i school of thought, defines "ability" is a person considered capable if it has property worth the sacrifice of animals outside of their needs and the needs of people who are under its responsibility.
4. Hanbali school, defines "ability" is the possibility of getting an animal for sacrifice, even in the form of debt, but the relevant afford it.
Animal Sacrifice Quality
As for the terms of the quality of sacrificial animals legally as follows:
1. No defects, as shown Prophetic traditions:
"Four unauthorized animal sacrifices made: damaged his eyes, sore, lame, thin and powerless" (Narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal).
2. Has reached a certain age, based on the traditions of the Prophet Saww:
"Do not be slaughtered for sacrifice, but that has changed gear, unless it difficult to get, then allowed a one-year-old from the sheep" (Narrated by Muslim).
Quantity Animals to Sacrifice
The quantity of animals to pekurban been determined as instructions Prophetic traditions as follows:
1. A camel, cow or buffalo applies to seven people, based on the hadith that the Prophet said to Jabir bin Abdullah from the Ansar as follows:
"We have shared sacrifice Prophet Hudaibiyah in the year, one to seven camels and a cow for seven people" (Narrated by Muslim).
2. One sheep or goats for one person is figured to a fine of leaving compulsory pilgrimage.
Sacrifice of animal slaughter time
In the slaughter of sacrificial animals Jurists differ in terms of time seeing it as follows:
1. Hanafi school believes that the old sacrifice was for three days, starting from the day of Eid al-Adha until the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah. This opinion was based on three-person greeting the Prophet Companions, ie Umar ibn al-Khattab, Ali ibn Abi Talib, and Ibn Abbas, that "The days of offering it for three days, the fine is the first day." The first time was when the slaughter of sacrificial dawn on the day of Eid al-Adha until sunset on the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah. However, makruh tanzih (better left than done) the law to slaughter sacrificial animals at night. And new slaughter sacrificial animals should be done after Eid al-Adha prayers, though not yet read the sermon. Basic Saww opinion is the hadith of the Prophet: "Whoever slaughtered the sacrifice before the smoked id, he had slaughtered for himself, and whoever slaughtered after prayer id, then he has perfected his worship and have undergone the rules of Islam" (HR.al-Bukhari).
2. Maliki school of thought argues that the old sacrifice was for three days as the opinion of the Hanafi School. The first time was after the priest offering prayers id do slaughter first. But if the priest did not do it, then the slaughter of sacrificial animals began after some time needed to complete the slaughter is expected to sacrifice. Is essentially a hadith narrated from Jabir bin Abdullah, the Prophet ordered to slaughter the sacrifice after the Holy Prophet to perform to slaughter (Narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Muslim).
3. Shafi'i school of thought argues that the old slaughter of sacrificial animals for four days ie on the day of Eid al-Adha and the day tasyrik. The reason is based on the Prophet: "Verily, the first thing we did on this day (Eid ul-Adha) is to pray, then go home, then slaughtered the sacrifice" (Narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Daruqutni). The beginning time of slaughter of sacrificial animals, as has been the passage of (roughly) prayers sermon two cycles and two after sun-tall compact spear on Eid al-Adha. The reason is based on the traditions of the Prophet peace be upon him: "He who slaughtered the sacrifice before the prayer id means have been slaughtered for himself and who slaughtered after prayer id then has been perfecting his worship and live by the rule of Islam" (Narrated by al-Bukhari). The end time is before sunset on the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah. They also argue the law makruh sacrifice at night, for fear of mistake in the slaughter, or because there are no poor people in attendance at the slaughter.
4. Hanbali school, argues that the old sacrifice was for three days, starting from the day of Eid al-Adha until the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah (the same as Hanafi and Maliki). But in determining the beginning time of slaughter of sacrificial animals, as has been the passage of (roughly) prayers sermon two cycles and two after sun-tall compact spear on Eid al-Adha (equal to the Shafi'i school), and they also argue the law makruh sacrifice on night. Messenger of Allah forbade slaughtering at night. (Narrated by at-Tabrani and al-Baihaki).
Sacrifice of the Meat Law
Differences of opinion about the meat law as follows:
1. Hanafi school looked sunna meat of sacrificial animals were divided into three: one third of the sunna are eaten by their owners; a third was awarded to close friends, even if they were wealthy; a third given to the poor. This opinion is based on the word of God Almighty: "And if it had fallen (dead), eat sebahagiannya and give people who are willing to eat what there is to it (which does not beg) and those who ask." (QS.22: 36 .) And Prophetic traditions narrated from Ibn Abbas that the Prophet divided altars of three parts: one third to keluargana, a third to a poor neighbor, and a third for beggars (Narrated by Hafiz Abu Musa al-Isfahani).
2. Hanbali school, looking at the sunna meat of sacrificial animals were divided into three: one third of the sunna are eaten by their owners; a third was awarded to close friends, even if they were wealthy; a third given to the poor (agree with the Hanafi school.) But they view it mandatory for owners of sacrificial animals consuming a third of the sacrificial meat, because the command contained in the above verse implies compulsory. Nevertheless, scholars Hanbali school allows the owner to eat the meat offering more than that.
3. Maliki school of thought argues that the meat does not need to be divided. Hadiths that describe the division that everything is absolute, which requires details. According to them, the Prophet did not forbid eating the meat and store, without giving to others, as in his saying: "I forbid you keep the meat more than three days, because the interests of a group of Bedouin. Then God gives spaciousness, then save it for yourselves what is in you "(Narrated by Muslim).
4. Shafi'i school of thought, the law required to given to the poor majority of even small amounts of meat, while the rest given to the companion taulan, both rich and poor, and the owner himself sunna to eat just a bite. Basically refers to the word of God Almighty: "And then when it collapsed (dead), eat sebahagiannya and give people who are willing to eat what was available to him (not begging) and the person who asks" (QS.22: 36). "So eat sebahagian thereof and (sebahagian again) give to eat of people who suffer more indigent" (QS.22: 28). And based on the hadith which says that, "Messenger of Allah used to eat the liver of animals altars" (HR.al-Baihaki).
Sacrifice for Others
Sacrifice for others, especially for people who have died, the Jurists differ as follows:
1. Shafi'i School, argues that one should not sacrifice for other people if unauthorized person. Similarly, should not be sacrificed for those who have died without a will of it. Basically the word of Allah Most High: "And that one man no gain other than what has been earned," (QS.53: 39). But if there is a will to slaughter the sacrificial animals, it must provide all the sacrificial meat to the poor, unless there is consent from the intestate.
2. Maliki School, argues that its legal makruh sacrifice for the people who have died without his statement before he died. If he was before he died has menyetakan his intention, then the sunna to sacrifice for her heirs.
3. Hanafi and Hanbali school, look no obstacle to sacrifice for the people who have died, though without his will, because people who have died more to expect assistance in the form of prayers and alms from his brother who is still alive. This opinion was based on, "Saww Prophet himself had laid the midrib-wet palm midrib above the graves of people who died and declared that it was beneficial to him" (HR.al-Bukhari and Muslim).
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