Rabu, 11 Februari 2009

The Politics of Islamic



Muhammad was his own Constantine. This history of mosque/state relationships has always been complex, but for most Muslims, mosque and state have ideally always been pretty much the same thing. Muhammad did not simply found a religious movement - what he founded was a community, the ummah of believers. He was arbiter, judge, military commander, political leader, and so much more.

Because Muahmmad reported revelations from God, he was also fundamentally a legislator for the community. Thus, the relationship between religious and political authority has always been much different than it has in the nations where Christianity has been dominant.

Thus, both the religious dimensions and the political dimensions are equally important. An Islamist movement cannot exist without the support of Islamic history and theology, but any particular Islamist movement also depends upon the political and social atmosphere in the country where it develops. Because of this, no one form of Islamism is any more purely "Islamic" than any other and no form of Islamism is a historical inevitability.

Islam: Politics vs. Religion

Mosque & State
The relationship between mosque and state in Islamic tradition is very complex. It isn't enough to say that they are completely intertwined, but they aren't really separate either. For Christians, there has always been a distinction between church and state. But this is not the case in Islam.

Dar al-Harb vs. Dar al-Islam
A crucial distinction made in Islamic theology is that between dar al-harb and dar al-islam. To put it most simply, dar al-harb (territory of war or chaos) is the name for the regions where Islam does not dominate, where divine will is not observed, and therefore where continuing strife is the norm. By contrast, dar al-islam (territory of peace) is the name for those territories where Islam does dominate, where submission to God is observed, and where peace and tranquility reign.

What are the various sects of Muslims?
Islam is not an entirely unified religion, presenting a single, monolithic face to the world. Islam does not have nearly as many sects and divisions as does Christianity, but there are a few and it is worth knowing something about them. The two biggest are the Sunnis and the Shi'ites, with the Sunnis being the largest of all and representing the vast majority of Muslims. Shi'ites are a minority everywhere except Iran.

Where can Islam be found?
Here you can find information about many of the countries where Muslims are a majority of the population. There are documents about political history, religious history, treatment of religious minorities, etc.

Further Reading

Recent Books on Islam
What is Islam? Is Islam opposed to democracy and human rights? Are there good reasons to reject Islam and its theological claims? To what extent have politics and economics influenced the development of Islam in the Middle East? The books here answer those questions and more, presenting a critical and scholarly perspective.

Recent Books on Palestine & Israel
Few people are unaware of the violence which keeps occurring between Israelis and Palestinians. Why is this happening - what are the causes, and are there any solutions? Everything comes back to religion: the disagreement and violence between Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Understanding the role of religion in these disagreements is necessary to understanding the violence itself.

Recent Books on Religion, Violence, and Terrorism
Religious leaders normally argue that religion is a force for good and love in the world. Yet, at the same time, we see religion regularly used for war, mass murder, terrorism, and even genocide. Why does this difference exist - how can religion be claimed as a basis for peace while so many use it as a basis for terrorism?



Source : http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/islam/blis_politics.htm

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